FidelityFX Frame Interpolation 1.0

Table of contents


The FidelityFX Frame Interpolation technique takes 2 back buffers, and several resources shared with FSR3Upscaler and FfxOpticalFlow to compute an interpolated image between the 2 back buffers.

This technique has been designed to work together with the FfxOpticalFlow (by taking textures generated by this technique) and FfxFsr3Upscaler (by using internal surfaces of that technique). Although FfxFrameInterpolation does not use the interface of those techniques directly, it will requires references to some surfaces on dispatch, so FfxOpticalFlow and FfxFsr3Upscaler must be used together with FfxFrameInterpolation to compute those surfaces.

For ease of integration it is recommended to use the FfxFsr3 interface.

The FfxFrameInterpolation effect only computes the interpolated image. Once this is accomplished, the interpolated and real back buffers still need to be used, i.e. usually sent to the swapchain. On the topic of how to handle presentation and pacing of the back buffers, please refer to the frame interpolation swapchain documentaion.

Shading language requirements

  • HLSL
    • CS_6_2
    • CS_6_6†

CS_6_6 is used on some hardware which supports 64-wide wavefronts.


The FidelityFX Frame Interpolation technique is part of FidelityFX Super Resolution 3 and requires internal surfaces from the latest version of the FidelityFX Temporal Upscaler and is designed to work together with FidelityFX Optical Flow . The FSR3 API has been designed to handle the interaction of the different effects, so it is recommended to refer to the FSR3 documentation for integration guidelines.

This section covers how to use the FidelityFX Frame Interpolation API directly and should help understand the inner workings of the ffx_fsr3 component.


The effect can be created by calling the ffxFrameInterpolationContextCreate function, with a pointer to a FfxFrameInterpolationContext container for the context, and a pointer to a FfxFrameInterpolationContextDescription structure which is filled with data relevant for the frame interpolation context.

The FfxFrameInterpolationContextDescription structure contains configuration data:

  • A FidelityFX backend interface to use
  • A set of initialization flags
  • The maximum resolution the rendering will be performed at
  • The resolution of the resources that will get interpolated
  • The format of the resources that will get interpolated

The initialization flags are provided though the FfxFrameInterpolationInitializationFlagBits enumeration:

Flag Note
FFX_FRAMEINTERPOLATION_ENABLE_DEPTH_INVERTED A bit indicating that the input depth buffer data provided is inverted [1..0].A bit indicating the depth buffer is inverted.
FFX_FRAMEINTERPOLATION_ENABLE_DEPTH_INFINITE A bit indicating that the input depth buffer data provided is using an infinite far plane.
FFX_FRAMEINTERPOLATION_ENABLE_TEXTURE1D_USAGE A bit indicating that the backend should use 1D textures.
FFX_FRAMEINTERPOLATION_ENABLE_HDR_COLOR_INPUT A bit indicating if the input color data provided is using a high-dynamic range.


To dispatch the effect and gain relevant results, call the ffxFrameInterpolationContextDispatch function with a FfxFrameInterpolationDispatchDescription structure filled as follows:

FfxFrameInterpolationDispatchDescription member Note
flags A combination of FfxFrameInterpolationDispatchFlags.
commandList The FfxCommandList to record frame interpolation commands into.
displaySize The destination output dimensions.
renderSize The dimensions used to render game content. dilatedDepth and dilatedMotionVectors are expected to be of this size.
currentBackBuffer The current presentation color buffer. If currentBackBuffer_HUDLess is not used, this will be used as interpolation source data.
currentBackBuffer_HUDLess The current presentation color buffer without HUD content. When use it will be used as interpolation source data.
output The output resource to store the interpolated result.
dilatedDepth The dilated depth buffer data.
dilatedMotionVectors The dilated motion vector data.
reconstructPrevNearDepth The estimated previous frame’s depth buffer.
interpolationRect The area of the backbuffer that should be used for interpolation in case only a part of the screen is used e.g. due to movie bars.
opticalFlowVector The optical flow motion vectors.
opticalFlowSceneChangeDetection The optical flow scene change detection data.
opticalFlowBufferSize The optical flow motion vector resource dimensions.
opticalFlowScale The optical flow motion vector scale factor, used to scale resoure values into [0.0,1.0] range.
opticalFlowBlockSize The optical flow block dimension size.
cameraNear The distance to the near plane of the camera.
cameraFar The distance to the far plane of the camera. This is used only used in case of non infinite depth.
cameraFovAngleVertical The camera angle field of view in the vertical direction (expressed in radians).
viewSpaceToMetersFactor The unit to scale view space coordinates to meters.
frameTimeDelta The time elapsed since the last frame (expressed in milliseconds).
reset A boolean value which when set to true, indicates the camera has moved discontinuously.
backBufferTransferFunction The transfer function use to convert interpolation source color data to linear RGB.
minMaxLuminance[2] Min and max luminance values, used when converting HDR colors to linear RGB.

The flags attribute of FfxFrameInterpolationDispatchDescription can be a combination of the following:

FfxFrameInterpolationDispatchFlags Note
FFX_FRAMEINTERPOLATION_DISPATCH_DRAW_DEBUG_TEAR_LINES A flag indicating Debug output visualization of tear lines should be enabled.
FFX_FRAMEINTERPOLATION_DISPATCH_DRAW_DEBUG_VIEW A flag indicating Debug output visualization of internal surfaces should be enabled.


A context can be destroyed using the ffxFrameInterpolationContextDestroy function, passing in the pointer to the relevant context container.

The technique

Algorithm structure

The FfxFrameInterpolation algorithm is implemented in a series of stages, which are as follows:

  1. Setup pass
  2. Estimate interpolated frame depth
  3. Compute game motion vector field
  4. Compute game motion vector field inpainting pyramid
  5. Compute optical flow vector field
  6. Compute disocclusion mask
  7. Compute interpolation
  8. Compute inpainting pyramid
  9. Inpainting

Frame interpolation flowchart

Setup pass

The setup pass clears the internal Counter, GameMotionVectorFieldXY, OpticalFlowVectorFieldXY and DisocclusionMask surfaces, as those will be used through atomic operations.

Estimate interpolated frame depth

This pass (using the ReconstructPreviousDepthPass pipeline) computes the estimated dilated depth buffer of the interpolated frame. It is based on the logic of the reconstruct depth reconstruction of the ReconstructAndDilate pass used in the temporal upscaler.

To compute the depth buffer of the interpolated frame, this pass consumes the dilated depth and motion vectors surfaces from the Fsr3Upscaler and reprojects and dilates them by half the motion vector length.

Compute game motion vector field

The GameMotionVectorField pass constructs the frame of reference of the interpolated frame location. This means, when sampling previous and current frame data using the game motion vectors, an interpolated frame is generated.

To do this, the pass packs the DilatedMotionVectors into the low 16 bits of a pair of 32-bit UINT values. The high 16 bits contain a priority, consisting of the highest 1-bit to indicate if the vector is primary or secondary, 10-bits to indicate high priority based on the distance from the camera, and the low 5 bits of priority are based on color similarity of the previous and current back buffers.

The values get written using atomic operations and it is not guaranteed that all locations get written in this pass, so there may be some holes in the field.

Compute game motion vector field inpainting pyramid

Locations not written by the previous pass will get filled in by adjacent vector information. To accomplish this, this pass generates a full mip chain of the game motion vector field using SPD .

In this mip chain the game motion vectors will be stored in .xy channels, the high, depth-based, priority factor will be stored in the .z channel and low, color similarity-based, priority factor will be stored in the .w channel.

For computing the mip-chain the closest vector in 2D and the farthest in depth will be selected.

Compute optical flow vector field

This pass is similar to the GameMotionVectorField but uses the motion vectors generated by FfxOpticalFlow vectors as input.

The high priority value is computed based on vector magnitude and the low priority value is based on color similarity of reprojected colors using the optical flow motion vectors.

Compute disocclusion mask

This pass is based on the temporal upscaler disocclusion logic but will produce two disocclusion masks:

  • One mask represents the disocclusion area between the interpolated frame and the previous frame
  • One mask represents the disocclusion area between the interpolated frame and the current frame

Using this mask the compute interpolation pass will determine if any reprojection direction is to be discarded.

Compute interpolation

This pass computes the interpolated image using the disocclusion mask and the motion vector fields.

To do so, it first reads the counters and checks if this is the first image after a reset, in which case it will simply copy the latest back buffer.

After this the algorithm operates in 2 stages:

  • First, it computes an interpolated color for each pixel by blending the two color values based on the disocclusion mask value
  • Next, it computes an interpolated color based on the optical flow motion vectors and blends it with the game motion vector based result
    • The blend factor for this operation is based on the color similarity between previous and current color for each case, so in a nutshell, if optical flow motion vectors result in a better match the algorithm prefers them to the game motion vectors.

The resulting image may contain some holes, which will get filled by inpainting pass in the final step of the algorithm.

Compute inpainting pyramid

This pass uses SPD to generate a full mip chain of the interpolated color. Holes in the interpolated color will be ignored, so sampling from the mip chain will result in a color averaged from the closest color values in 2D space.


This pass fills in any holes left in compute interpolation pass by using the inpainting pyramid to find the closest available color.

After this, the pass cleans up the UI in case the HUD-less UI mode is being used, and then optionally adds debug information to the interpolated image.

Debug output

The frame interpolation API supports 2 types of debug view:

When FFX_FRAMEINTERPOLATION_DISPATCH_DRAW_DEBUG_TEAR_LINES is set in the flags attribute of FfxFrameGenerationConfig, the inpainting pass will add bars of changing color on the left and right border of the interpolated image. This will assist visualizing if interpolated frames are getting presented and if the frames are presented with tearing enabled.

When FFX_FRAMEINTERPOLATION_DISPATCH_DRAW_DEBUG_VIEW is set in the flags attribute of FfxFrameGenerationConfig, the FrameInterpolationSwapChain will only present interpolated frames and execute an additional pass to render debug data from internal surfaces onto the interpolated frame, to allow you to debug.

Frame interpolation debug overlay